2001 TOPEKA, KANSAS (TOP)



Topeka, is located near the geographical center of the United States, and the middle of the temperate zone. The city straddles the Kansas River about 60 miles above its junction with the Missouri River. The Kansas River flows in an easterly direction through northeastern Kansas. Near Topeka, the river valley ranges from 2 to 4 miles wide, and is bordered on both sides by rolling prairie uplands of some 200 to 300 feet. The city is built on both banks of the Kansas River and along two tributaries, Soldier Creek in north Topeka and Shunganunga Creek in the south and east part of town. Flooding is always a threat following periods of heavy rains but protective construction has reduced the problem.

Seventy percent of the annual precipitation normally falls during the six crop–growing months, April through September. The rains of this period are usually of short duration, predominantly of the thunderstorm type. They occur more frequently during the nighttime and early morning hours than at other times of the day. Excessive precipitation rates may occur with warm–season thunderstorms. Rainfall accumulations over 8 inches in 24 hours have occurred in Topeka. Tornadoes have occurred in the area on several occasions and caused severe damage and numerous injuries.

Individual summers show wide departures from average conditions. Hottest summers may produce temperatures of 100 degrees or higher on more than 50 days. On the other hand, 25 percent of the summers pass with two or fewer 100 degree days. Similarly, precipitation has shown a wide range for June, July, and August, varying from under 3 inches to more than 27 inches during the 3 months. Summers are hot with low relative humidity and persistent southerly winds. Oppressively warm periods with high relative humidity are usually of short duration.

Winter temperatures average about 45 degrees cooler than summer. Cold spells are seldom prolonged. Only on rare occasions do daytime temperatures fail to rise above freezing. Winter precipitation is often in the form of snow, sleet, or glaze, but storms of such severity to prevent normal movement of traffic or to interfere with scheduled activity are not common.

In the transitional spring and fall seasons, the numerous days of fair weather are interspersed with short intervals of stormy weather. Strong, blustery winds are quite common in late winter and spring. Autumn is characteristically a season of warm days, cool nights, and infrequent precipitation, with cold air invasions gradually increasing in intensity as the season progresses.

Nearly all crops of the temperate zone can be produced in the vicinity of Topeka. Wheat and other small grains, clover, soybeans, fruit, and berries do well, and the area supports an extensive dairy industry.

Based on the 1951–1980 period, the average first occurrence of 32 degrees Fahrenheit in the fall is October 14 and the average last occurrence in the spring is April 21.

NORMALS, MEANS, AND EXTREMES

TOPEKA, KS (TOP)

LATITUDE:    LONGITUDE:     ELEVATION (FT):    TIME ZONE:    WBAN: 13996

39 04′ 21″ N  95 37′ 33″ W  GRND: 880  BARO: 883  CENTRAL (UTC + 6)

2001 Topeka, Kansas (TOP)

ELEMENT POR JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC YEAR
TEMPERATURE F NORMAL DAILY MAXIMUM 30 37.0 42.6 55.0 66.9 75.8 84.2 89.3 87.5 79.7 69.0 54.0 40.5 65.1
MEAN DAILY MAXIMUM 54 37.5 43.4 54.0 66.5 76.0 84.5 89.3 88.3 80.6 69.7 53.8 41.9 65.5
HIGHEST DAILY MAXIMUM 54 73 84 89 95 97 107 110 110 109 96 85 73 110
YEAR OF OCCURRENCE 1967 1972 1986 1987 1998 1953 1980 1984 2000 1963 1980 2001 AUG 1984
MEAN OF EXTREME MAXS. 53 61.4 66.9 78.1 86.4 89.8 95.4 99.3 99.5 94.8 87.1 74.1 64.0 83.1
NORMAL DAILY MINIMUM 30 16.3 21.7 32.1 42.8 53.3 62.9 67.6 64.9 55.7 43.6 32.0 21.0 42.8
MEAN DAILY MINIMUM 54 17.3 22.6 31.2 42.7 53.6 63.1 67.6 65.5 55.9 44.7 32.0 22.1 43.2
LOWEST DAILY MINIMUM 54 -20 -23 -7 10 26 43 43 41 29 19 2 -26 -26
YEAR OF OCCURRENCE 1974 1979 1978 1975 1963 1993 1972 1988 1984 1993 1976 1989 DEC 1989
MEAN OF EXTREME MINS. 53 -3.5 1.8 12.6 26.4 37.3 49.1 55.3 52.5 38.4 27.0 15.4 2.0 26.2
NORMAL DRY BULB 30 26.7 32.2 43.6 54.9 64.6 73.6 78.5 76.2 67.8 56.3 43.0 30.8 54.0
MEAN DRY BULB 54 27.4 33.1 42.6 54.6 64.8 73.9 78.5 77.0 68.3 57.2 43.0 32.0 54.4
MEAN WET BULB 56 24.8 29.8 37.6 48.1 58.1 66.9 70.6 68.8 60.9 50.5 38.2 28.9 48.6
MEAN DEW POINT 56 19.0 23.6 30.9 41.7 53.6 63.1 67.0 64.9 56.5 44.8 32.7 23.5 43.4
NORMAL NO. DAYS WITH:
MAXIMUM 90 30 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 1.1 6.7 15.5 12.8 4.7 0.6 0.0 0.0 41.8
MAXIMUM 32 30 10.9 6.8 1.4 * 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 7.7 27.9
MINIMUM 32 30 29.0 23.1 16.7 4.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 4.0 16.1 27.1 120.8
MINIMUM 0 30 4.1 2.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.9 8.1
H/C NORMAL HEATING DEG. DAYS 30 1187 918 663 312 121 5 0 0 56 283 660 1060 5265
NORMAL COOLING DEG. DAYS 30 0 0 0 9 109 263 419 351 140 13 0 0 1304
RH NORMAL (PERCENT) 30 70 69 66 64 68 71 70 71 72 68 71 72 69
HOUR 00 LST 30 75 75 73 72 78 81 78 80 82 77 78 77 77
HOUR 06 LST 30 77 78 79 80 84 87 86 87 88 83 81 80 82
HOUR 12 LST 30 63 62 57 54 57 60 59 58 58 54 60 65 59
HOUR 18 LST 30 64 60 53 51 55 58 56 57 60 57 64 68 59
S PERCENT POSSIBLE SUNSHINE 50 57 55 57 58 61 67 71 71 66 64 56 51 61
W/O MEAN NO. DAYS WITH:
HEAVY FOG (VISBY 1/4 MI) 54 2.2 1.9 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.5 1.2 1.1 1.7 1.3 2.2 15.5
THUNDERSTORMS 54 0.4 0.7 2.5 5.4 8.8 10.0 8.6 7.9 5.8 3.3 1.2 0.4 55.0
CLOUDINESS MEAN:
SUNRISE-SUNSET (OKTAS) 1 7.2 5.6 4.0 6.4 4.8 4.0 5.2 3.2 2.8 4.4 4.4 3.6 4.6
MIDNIGHT-MIDNIGHT (OKTAS) 1 7.2 5.6 4.0 6.4 4.8 4.0 5.2 3.2 2.8 4.8 4.4 2.4 4.6
MEAN NO. DAYS WITH:
CLEAR 3 4.3 8.7 7.0 8.0 11.0 11.0 6.5 12.0 7.0 10.0 6.5 10.5 102.5
PARTLY CLOUDY 3 4.0 3.3 5.0 4.0 4.3 6.0 9.0 7.0 1.0 2.0 2.5 3.0 51.1
CLOUDY 3 9.7 7.3 6.0 9.5 6.3 5.3 5.5 4.5 4.5 7.5 8.5 8.0 82.6
PR MEAN STATION PRESSURE (IN) 28 29.19 29.14 29.03 29.00 28.99 29.00 29.04 29.06 29.09 29.11 29.10 29.18 29.08
MEAN SEA-LEVEL PRES. (IN) 56 30.16 30.12 30.00 29.95 29.93 29.91 29.96 29.98 30.02 30.05 30.07 30.13 30.02
WINDS MEAN SPEED (MPH) 46 9.7 10.1 11.5 11.8 10.3 9.6 8.5 8.2 8.4 9.1 9.7 9.5 9.7
PREVAIL. DIR (TENS OF DEGS) 29 36 36 36 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 18 30 18
MAXIMUM 2-MINUTE:
SPEED (MPH) 8 39 36 37 43 47 48 44 38 43 37 45 37 48
DIR. (TENS OF DEGS) 31 17 21 21 34 34 34 27 32 14 31 33 34
YEAR OF OCCURRENCE 1996 1996 2000 2001 1999 1996 1996 1996 2000 2001 1997 2000 JUN 1996
MAXIMUM 5-SECOND:
SPEED (MPH) 8 49 47 48 53 59 66 62 65 52 52 54 47 66
DIR. (TENS OF DEGS) 31 16 23 21 34 35 33 26 32 23 30 31 35
YEAR OF OCCURRENCE 1996 1994 2000 2001 1999 1994 1994 1994 2000 1996 1997 1997 JUN 1994
PRECEPITATION NORMAL (IN) 30 0.95 1.04 2.46 3.08 4.45 5.54 3.59 3.89 3.81 3.06 1.93 1.43 35.23
MAXIMUM MONTHLY (IN) 54 5.24 3.49 8.44 8.69 9.39 15.20 12.02 11.18 12.71 7.24 6.27 4.30 15.20
YEAR OF OCCURRENCE 1949 1971 1973 1999 1982 1967 1950 1977 1973 1980 1964 1973 JUN 1967
MINIMUM MONTHLY (IN) 54 T 0.02 0.10 0.62 0.41 0.56 0.59 0.26 0.66 0.04 T 0.04 T
YEAR OF OCCURRENCE 1986 1991 1966 1989 1966 1980 1983 1971 1952 1952 1989 1996 NOV 1989
MAXIMUM IN 24 HOURS (IN) 54 1.55 2.33 3.76 3.59 3.62 5.52 4.19 4.48 4.80 4.10 4.66 2.65 5.52
YEAR OF OCCURRENCE 1988 1971 1987 1967 1978 1967 1951 1962 1989 1985 1964 1980 JUN 1967
NORMAL NO. DAYS WITH:
PRECIPITATION 0.01 30 5.9 5.9 8.7 9.8 11.0 10.3 7.9 8.3 8.3 6.8 6.5 6.6 96.0
PRECIPITATION 1.00 30 0.1 0.1 0.5 0.7 1.3 1.8 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.1 0.3 0.2 9.8
SNOWFALL NORMAL (IN) 30 5.8 4.7 2.8 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.* 1.2 5.6 20.7
MAXIMUM MONTHLY (IN) 54 23.0 22.4 22.1 6.8 T T T T 0.0 8.0 9.4 18.8 23.0
YEAR OF OCCURRENCE 1993 1971 1960 1970 1991 1992 1992 1994 1996 1972 1983 JAN 1993
MAXIMUM IN 24 HOURS (IN) 54 15.2 15.2 8.4 7.6 T T T T 0.0 8.0 7.4 9.0 15.2
YEAR OF OCCURRENCE 1993 1971 1960 1970 1991 1992 1992 1994 1994 1996 1975 1973 JAN 1993
MAXIMUM SNOW DEPTH (IN) 56 12 12 18 4 0 T 0 T 0 6 8 9 18
YEAR OF OCCURRENCE 1979 1971 1960 1970 1993 1949 1996 1975 1983 MAR 1960
NORMAL NO. DAYS WITH:
SNOWFALL 1.0 30 1.9 1.5 1.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 1.8 6.8

2001 Topeka, Kansas (TOP)

PRECIPITATION (inches) 2001 TOPEKA, KS (TOP)
YEAR JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC ANNUAL
1972 0.47 0.56 1.37 3.93 2.90 1.14 4.81 3.26 4.89 2.11 3.99 1.78 31.21
1973 2.67 1.71 8.44 4.03 4.37 2.96 10.16 2.83 12.71 4.57 2.14 4.30 60.89
1974 0.99 1.20 1.22 2.78 3.59 3.72 2.90 4.89 1.40 5.16 2.19 1.18 31.22
1975 1.50 1.67 1.66 3.26 3.88 4.85 0.68 1.69 4.35 0.05 4.44 1.12 29.15
1976 0.41 0.51 1.38 4.85 4.63 1.69 2.04 0.86 1.12 3.01 0.04 0.21 20.75
1977 0.90 0.22 2.06 2.46 7.83 10.91 1.37 11.18 3.22 4.92 3.38 0.26 48.71
1978 0.19 0.84 1.63 2.35 5.75 4.57 2.26 2.89 6.65 0.36 3.22 0.55 31.26
1979 1.81 0.63 3.95 2.37 2.25 5.63 5.84 4.05 2.17 4.15 1.80 0.05 34.70
1980 1.34 0.91 4.15 1.03 4.85 0.56 0.87 5.86 1.19 7.24 0.25 3.86 32.11
1981 0.32 0.21 1.61 1.98 5.93 9.40 7.63 3.92 2.03 3.72 3.63 0.22 40.60
1982 1.67 0.59 1.14 1.58 9.39 5.99 5.08 4.53 1.17 1.25 2.26 3.61 38.26
1983 0.69 0.63 4.39 6.29 4.93 6.08 0.59 0.62 2.25 5.19 3.61 1.34 36.61
1984 0.11 1.35 4.57 4.26 3.45 10.17 1.66 1.04 4.24 4.10 0.72 2.36 38.03
1985 0.70 2.02 2.38 3.60 3.79 5.15 2.90 7.97 8.16 5.20 2.02 0.71 44.60
1986 T 1.55 1.35 3.15 7.53 2.51 4.21 5.50 6.21 3.30 0.87 1.20 37.38
1987 1.09 2.71 5.92 2.33 3.89 4.86 2.78 5.90 1.81 1.86 1.94 1.87 36.96
1988 2.04 0.48 0.73 2.93 3.08 3.13 1.74 1.34 1.94 0.26 0.86 0.86 19.39
1989 1.24 0.86 3.11 0.62 4.05 4.76 5.21 6.22 8.65 3.44 T 0.61 38.77
1990 1.22 2.31 3.75 1.01 4.45 5.57 3.01 5.69 0.83 2.71 2.91 0.97 34.43
1991 0.76 0.02 2.98 3.63 7.09 1.49 1.47 1.76 2.15 3.20 2.20 2.44 29.19
1992 0.89 1.18 5.29 3.25 1.75 3.35 6.37 1.24 3.92 1.41 5.27 2.01 35.93
1993 1.11 1.61 2.56 5.43 6.95 2.18 10.98 5.32 7.03 1.37 1.12 0.90 46.56
1994 0.42 0.82 0.19 4.31 0.95 4.63 3.16 7.87 1.46 1.30 2.87 1.52 29.50
1995 1.50 0.71 2.11 3.32 11.82 3.43 5.10 4.29 2.90 0.21 0.66 0.57 36.62
1996 0.76 0.19 1.48 1.57 7.72 7.97 2.65 6.09 3.60 2.79 2.66 0.04 37.52
1997 0.24 2.67 0.26 4.99 3.54 1.36 2.59 4.65 2.15 3.58 2.14 2.41 30.58
1998 0.79 0.77 2.88 2.16 2.08 7.22 9.32 0.88 4.19 5.01 5.64 1.22 42.16
1999 1.17 0.94 0.99 8.69 6.38 6.20 0.59 1.09 4.43 0.87 1.60 1.76 34.71
2000 0.19 2.00 2.62 1.07 2.08 7.25 2.77 0.61 2.97 3.52 1.91 0.35 27.34
2001 1.22 2.90 3.56 4.27 3.85 6.39 2.31 5.95 7.46 3.51 1.13 0.13 42.68
POR=55 YRS 0.95 1.15 2.40 3.16 4.39 5.03 4.24 3.94 3.44 2.80 1.87 1.34 34.71

2001 Topeka, Kansas (TOP)

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE (F) 2001 TOPEKA, KS (TOP)
YEAR JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC ANNUAL
1972 25.6 31.8 46.7 54.7 63.6 74.3 74.4 74.7 68.5 54.6 39.4 27.7 53.0
1973 27.5 33.9 47.5 52.6 61.3 74.9 77.4 77.1 66.6 60.4 44.8 29.9 54.5
1974 22.3 35.9 46.9 56.8 67.2 70.0 80.6 74.1 61.9 58.4 43.1 32.7 54.2
1975 30.7 28.8 37.8 54.4 67.3 74.2 77.3 79.3 64.0 59.3 45.5 34.5 54.4
1976 27.8 42.7 45.4 57.0 60.4 72.7 78.0 76.9 69.0 50.3 35.4 28.5 53.7
1977 15.2 37.4 49.6 60.2 70.1 75.2 79.4 76.4 71.6 56.7 42.7 30.1 55.4
1978 17.3 20.4 38.4 55.9 63.0 74.6 77.3 75.7 72.9 54.6 43.0 30.0 51.9
1979 11.8 19.2 42.6 51.6 63.1 72.4 77.8 76.9 68.0 57.0 40.0 35.5 51.3
1980 28.6 26.0 40.8 53.7 62.8 76.5 86.4 80.7 70.0 53.9 45.0 32.6 54.8
1981 31.4 35.5 46.1 60.6 60.9 75.5 79.5 73.1 68.0 56.1 47.2 30.1 55.3
1982 21.9 28.5 43.2 50.2 63.7 69.0 78.7 75.5 66.5 55.9 42.0 35.8 52.6
1983 32.5 36.1 44.9 49.4 62.5 73.5 81.1 83.0 72.2 58.7 45.8 14.4 54.5
1984 26.0 40.2 38.1 51.7 62.4 73.9 77.0 78.0 66.5 56.6 45.5 36.8 54.4
1985 19.9 25.6 48.6 58.7 66.5 72.0 79.7 72.8 66.8 56.6 36.7 25.1 52.4
1986 35.8 32.5 49.8 57.7 65.9 77.0 80.4 72.3 71.6 56.6 38.3 34.6 56.0
1987 29.7 40.3 46.7 57.1 70.4 76.2 78.1 75.5 68.2 52.6 47.4 35.9 56.5
1988 28.1 30.8 43.4 53.9 68.8 75.1 76.7 79.5 70.3 52.8 45.2 35.3 55.0
1989 38.0 22.9 44.4 57.9 64.2 71.4 77.6 74.8 62.3 57.1 42.3 21.0 52.8
1990 37.3 36.2 45.5 51.9 60.3 77.2 77.7 76.5 71.6 57.0 49.1 29.6 55.8
1991 25.2 48.2 57.7 69.4 77.1 80.2 77.3 69.3 58.6 37.9 37.4
1992 37.2 41.5 47.8 54.7 62.5 69.1 75.9 71.7 67.9 56.5 39.1 32.6 54.7
1993 26.4 29.9 40.8 50.2 63.1 72.9 78.2 77.8 63.4 54.0 39.3 34.8 52.6
1994 26.1 29.9 47.0 54.1 64.5 76.4 76.1 75.9 67.4 58.3 45.8 36.0 54.8
1995 29.3 37.0 45.1 52.0 59.3 72.5 80.2 80.9 65.8 57.2 40.1 30.6 54.2
1996 24.5 35.0 38.5 54.0 65.7 75.3 76.4 74.6 64.6 56.2 37.6 30.1 52.7
1997 26.2 35.0 46.2 49.9 60.5 73.5 78.5 75.5 69.7 58.1 40.3 32.8 53.9
1998 32.4 39.8 38.3 53.0 70.3 74.0 79.2 78.9 74.0 59.1 48.7 36.0 57.0
1999 28.6 42.9 43.3 55.1 64.8 73.4 82.4 77.6 65.6 56.9 51.3 36.2 56.5
2000 32.3 41.9 47.5 55.2 68.1 72.1 79.2 85.4 72.3 60.5 37.3 20.7 56.0
2001 30.3 30.5 40.8 60.6 67.6 73.4 82.9 79.0 66.5 56.7 51.1 37.8 56.4
POR=55 YRS 27.5 33.2 42.7 54.5 64.8 74.0 78.5 77.1 68.4 57.2 43.0 32.1 54.4

REFERENCE NOTES:

PAGE 1:

THE TEMPERATURE GRAPH SHOWS NORMAL MAXIMUM AND NORMAL MINIMUM DAILY TEMPERATURES (SOLID CURVES) AND THE ACTUAL DAILY HIGH AND LOW TEMPERATURES (VERTICAL BARS).

PAGE 2 AND 3:

H/C INDICATES HEATING AND COOLING DEGREE DAYS.

RH INDICATES RELATIVE HUMIDITY

W/O INDICATES WEATHER AND OBSTRUCTIONS

S INDICATES SUNSHINE.

PR INDICATES PRESSURE.

CLOUDINESS ON PAGE 3 IS THE SUM OF THE CEILOMETER AND SATELLITE DATA NOT TO EXCEED EIGHT EIGHTHS (OKTAS).

GENERAL:

T INDICATES TRACE PRECIPITATION, AN AMOUNT GREATER THAN ZERO BUT LESS THAN THE LOWEST REPORTABLE VALUE.

+ INDICATES THE VALUE ALSO OCCURS ON EARLIER DATES.

BLANK ENTRIES DENOTE MISSING OR UNREPORTED DATA.

NORMALS ARE 30–YEAR AVERAGES (1961–1990).

ASOS INDICATES AUTOMATED SURFACE OBSERVING SYSTEM.

PM INDICATES THE LAST DAY OF THE PREVIOUS MONTH.

POR (PERIOD OF RECORD) BEGINS WITH THE JANUARY DATA MONTH AND IS THE NUMBER OF YEARS USED TO COMPUTE THE MEAN. INDIVIDUAL MONTHS WITHIN THE POR MAY BE MISSING.

WHEN THE POR FOR A NORMAL IS LESS THAN 30 YEARS, THE NORMAL IS PROVISIONAL AND IS BASED ON THE NUMBER OF YEARS INDICATED.

0.* OR * INDICATES THE VALUE OR MEAN–DAYS–WITH IS BETWEEN 0.00 AND 0.05.

CLOUDINESS FOR ASOS STATIONS DIFFERS FROM THE NON–ASOS OBSERVATION TAKEN BY A HUMAN OBSERVER. ASOS STATION CLOUDINESS IS BASED ON TIME–AVERAGED CEILOMETER DATA FOR CLOUDS AT OR BELOW 12,000 FEET AND ON SATELLITE DATA FOR CLOUDS ABOVE 12,000 FEET.

THE NUMBER OF DAYS WITH CLEAR, PARTLY CLOUDY, AND CLOUDY CONDITIONS FOR ASOS STATIONS IS THE SUM OF THE CEILOMETER AND SATELLITE DATA FOR THE SUNRISE TO SUNSET PERIOD.

GENERAL CONTINUED:

CLEAR INDICATES 0–2 OKTAS, PARTLY CLOUDY INDICATES 3–6 OKTAS, AND CLOUDY INDICATES 7 OR 8 OKTAS. WHEN AT LEAST ONE OF THE ELEMENTS (CEILOMETER OR SATELLITE) IS MISSING, THE DAILY CLOUDINESS IS NOT COMPUTED.

WIND DIRECTION IS RECORDED IN TENS OF DEGREES (2 DIGITS) CLOCKWISE FROM TRUE NORTH. "00" INDICATES CALM. "36" INDICATES TRUE NORTH.

RESULTANT WIND IS THE VECTOR AVERAGE OF THE SPEED AND DIRECTION.

AVERAGE TEMPERATURE IS THE SUM OF THE MEAN DAILY MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM TEMPERATURE DIVIDED BY 2.

SNOWFALL DATA COMPRISE ALL FORMS OF FROZEN PRECIPITATION, INCLUDING HAIL.

A HEATING (COOLING) DEGREE DAY IS THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE AVERAGE DAILY TEMPERATURE AND 65 F.

DRY BULB IS THE TEMPERATURE OF THE AMBIENT AIR.

DEW POINT IS THE TEMPERATURE TO WHICH THE AIR MUST BE COOLED TO ACHIEVE 100 PERCENT RELATIVE HUMIDITY.

WET BULB IS THE TEMPERATURE THE AIR WOULD HAVE IF THE MOISTURE CONTENT WAS INCREASED TO 100 PERCENT RELATIVE HUMIDITY.

ON JULY 1, 1996, THE NATIONAL WEATHER SERVICE BEGAN USING THE "METAR" OBSERVATION CODE THAT WAS ALREADY EMPLOYED BY MOST OTHER NATIONS OF THE WORLD. THE MOST NOTICEABLE DIFFERENCE IN THIS ANNUAL PUBLICATION WILL BE THE CHANGE IN UNITS FROM TENTHS TO EIGHTS (OKTAS) FOR REPORTING THE AMOUNT OF SKY COVER.

2001 Topeka, Kansas (TOP)

HEATING DEGREE DAYS (base 65 F) 2001 TOPEKA, KS (TOP)
YEAR JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN TOTAL
1972-73 10 0 59 337 764 1152 1158 864 537 378 129 0 5388
1973-74 0 0 58 191 603 1082 1317 807 558 258 64 7 4945
1974-75 0 3 134 213 649 991 1056 1008 839 352 46 7 5298
1975-76 2 0 137 230 581 941 1148 639 599 269 178 5 4729
1976-77 0 0 45 471 881 1126 1537 767 469 180 11 0 5487
1977-78 0 0 6 263 662 1075 1473 1240 824 280 156 6 5985
1978-79 0 0 34 319 655 1078 1643 1277 693 401 129 9 6238
1979-80 0 4 45 267 741 908 1123 1123 744 344 129 3 5431
1980-81 0 0 65 344 591 1001 1035 822 579 175 176 0 4788
1981-82 0 2 46 283 529 1076 1329 1014 664 449 76 32 5500
1982-83 0 0 93 303 683 896 1002 804 615 466 120 13 4995
1983-84 0 0 56 223 570 1565 1204 713 830 405 137 0 5703
1984-85 0 0 145 276 578 871 1389 1098 501 228 35 8 5129
1985-86 0 0 127 259 844 1228 899 906 491 252 49 0 5055
1986-87 0 9 27 263 792 934 1084 688 560 292 16 0 4665
1987-88 0 3 24 376 531 893 1136 988 662 331 16 5 4965
1988-89 2 4 24 383 587 912 832 1174 641 296 125 5 4985
1989-90 0 2 155 276 672 1360 851 801 600 413 176 4 5310
1990-91 1 1 39 276 477 1093 1227 523 233 48 0
1991-92 0 0 95 262 808 849 855 673 528 326 132 7 4535
1992-93 0 2 68 278 770 995 1189 979 744 440 101 22 5588
1993-94 0 1 108 356 763 930 1202 974 553 347 94 0 5328
1994-95 0 1 64 237 568 892 1097 774 613 382 193 1 4822
1995-96 0 0 107 246 740 1059 1250 867 814 347 93 6 5529
1996-97 0 0 98 294 813 1076 1193 833 577 450 173 0 5507
1997-98 1 0 21 286 737 994 1000 699 830 361 27 27 4983
1998-99 0 0 9 203 485 893 1122 613 667 295 58 12 4357
1999-00 0 0 92 261 408 886 1006 666 536 295 51 10 4211
2000-01 0 0 61 174 824 1368 1069 958 742 182 53 9 5440
2001- 0 0 58 262 415 837

2001 Topeka, Kansas (TOP)

COOLING DEGREE DAYS (base 65 F) 2001 TOPEKA, KS (TOP)
YEAR JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC ANNUAL
1972 0 0 5 22 74 297 308 309 169 20 0 0 1204
1973 0 0 0 13 21 304 394 384 115 52 0 0 1283
1974 0 0 6 21 140 165 490 292 47 12 0 0 1173
1975 0 0 0 38 129 289 390 448 116 61 3 0 1474
1976 0 0 1 34 40 242 410 376 171 20 0 0 1294
1977 0 0 0 40 176 311 453 360 209 14 0 0 1563
1978 0 0 6 15 101 298 390 339 277 5 3 0 1434
1979 0 0 4 7 76 237 401 379 144 27 0 0 1275
1980 0 0 0 9 69 356 670 496 220 9 0 0 1829
1981 0 0 0 53 58 321 457 260 143 17 0 0 1309
1982 0 0 0 11 43 157 432 334 147 28 0 0 1152
1983 0 0 0 7 50 274 509 564 278 33 2 0 1717
1984 0 0 0 14 67 274 379 407 196 20 0 3 1360
1985 0 0 0 46 88 225 461 249 188 6 0 0 1263
1986 0 0 26 42 85 363 488 243 233 9 0 0 1489
1987 0 0 0 61 192 344 410 335 126 0 9 0 1477
1988 0 0 0 4 140 314 375 458 191 11 0 0 1493
1989 0 0 11 90 107 206 399 311 81 41 0 0 1246
1990 0 0 1 26 39 377 403 366 241 37 7 0 1497
1991 0 0 11 22 192 371 478 387 229 69 0 0 1759
1992 0 0 0 25 61 134 344 217 162 20 0 0 963
1993 0 0 0 0 48 269 417 405 64 22 0 0 1225
1994 0 0 0 26 86 348 351 345 140 36 0 0 1332
1995 0 0 4 1 22 237 481 502 140 16 0 0 1403
1996 0 0 0 25 125 321 358 302 92 28 0 0 1251
1997 0 0 0 1 38 262 424 330 166 81 0 0 1302
1998 0 0 10 9 196 304 445 440 287 26 1 0 1718
1999 0 0 0 5 57 269 545 396 120 20 1 0 1413
2000 0 0 2 6 153 231 446 640 284 44 0 0 1806
2001 0 0 0 59 140 267 563 441 109 12 5 0 1596

2001 Topeka, Kansas (TOP)

SNOWFALL (inches) 2001 TOPEKA, KS (TOP)
YEAR JUL AUG SEP OCT NOV DEC JAN FEB MAR APR MAY JUN TOTAL
1972-73 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.4 4.0 13.5 1.7 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 28.7
1973-74 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 15.2 7.8 2.1 1.5 1.3 0.0 0.0 27.9
1974-75 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 1.4 5.0 6.7 7.8 3.6 0.0 0.0 25.8
1975-76 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.3 2.7 6.4 0.7 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 21.0
1976-77 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 0.3 T 13.6 0.1 T 0.2 0.0 0.0 14.2
1977-78 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 3.9 12.4 6.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 22.8
1978-79 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 11.1 20.1 3.1 7.5 1.1 0.0 0.0 42.9
1979-80 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T T 3.5 11.4 3.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 18.3
1980-81 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 0.0 3.8 2.6 2.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.9
1981-82 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 1.4 3.2 8.0 0.3 0.5 0.0 0.0 13.4
1982-83 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 5.0 6.1 10.1 0.6 4.5 0.0 0.0 27.4
1983-84 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.1 18.8 2.6 T 4.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 29.7
1984-85 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 9.8 18.2 7.9 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 36.4
1985-86 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.3 5.8 T 1.5 T 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.6
1986-87 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 0.7 1.7 15.1 2.3 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 20.3
1987-88 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 9.6 0.6 6.0 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 21.8
1988-89 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.8 T 9.0 1.6 0.0 T T 12.1
1989-90 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 9.5 1.0 0.1 7.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 18.2
1990-91 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.9 9.6 T T T 0.0
1991-92 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 6.2 0.1 T T 0.9 T 0.0 T 7.2
1992-93 T 0.0 0.0 T 4.5 0.9 23.0 14.2 0.6 T T
1993-94 0.0 0.0 0.0 T T 3.3 2.0 6.0 1.9 1.4 0.0 0.0 14.6
1994-95 0.0 T 0.0 0.0 T 0.8 2.0 0.1 5.0 0.0
1995-96 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 5.5 8.3 T T T 0.0 T 14.5
1996-97 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.0 1.1 0.8 3.9 5.8 T 1.6 T 0.0 21.2
1997-98 0.0 0.0 0.0 T T 8.2 2.0 T 4.4 T 0.0 T 14.6
1998-99 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 4.0 2.0 1.8 T T 0.0 8.3
1999-00 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 7.6 3.7 0.2 T 0.0 0.0 0.0 11.5
2000-01 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T 8.3 1.2 8.3 1.3 T T 0.0 19.1
2001- 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 T
POR=55 YRS T T 0.0 0.2 1.2 4.7 5.7 0.3 0.2 T T T 12.3



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